Losing Touch with Nature May Make You Sick 失去山林的孩子


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2018/08/21 第378期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱


   
 

Losing Touch with Nature May Make You Sick  失去山林的孩子

by Brian Foden

Nature-Deficit Disorder is the term given to the ill effects of shunning the great outdoors.
大自然缺失症這個術語是用來形容迴避美好大自然所帶來的不良影響。

    

  For something that’s not actually a recognized medical condition, Nature-Deficit Disorder (NDD) has gotten a lot of attention since it was first coined in 2005. Writer Richard Louv, who acknowledges that NDD is mostly a metaphor for a lifestyle lacking in contact with nature, came up with the term in his book, Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. Louv explained that children who play outside often are less likely to become ill, stressed, or aggressive compared to those who watch a lot of television and spend most of their free time indoors. Indeed, studies appear to back up that claim by noting that children who spend a significant amount of time outdoors tend to have better mental and physical health. Experts believe that problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be relieved through contact with nature, whereas they may be worsened by staying inside watching TV, playing video games, or being glued to a smartphone. What’s more, research also suggests that getting a nature fix can help boost the immune system.
  According to Louv, the effects of NDD can be lessened or even reversed by making sure parents encourage their kids to enjoy playing outdoors as much as they can. However, mothers and fathers shouldn’t force their kids to go outside or use it as a type of punishment. Rather, they should lead by example, spending time with them in the park, at the beach, camping, and doing other activities, Louv said. He added that children learn many important and practical skills while interacting with nature, like risk-taking, independence, and decision-making. In turn, this aids in the development of confidence and overall good health.
————————————————————-
1. Which of the following best describes NDD?
(A) A medical condition that requires immediate attention.
(B) An irreversible illness that is common in today’s society.
(C) A physical disease that research has proven to be true.
(D) A symbolic term used to describe a certain lifestyle.
————————————————————-
2. What did Richard Louv suggest about NDD?
(A) Watching TV is one way to help get rid of NDD.
(B) He invented the term as a kind of joke.
(C) Children with NDD are more likely to become sick.
(D) He has performed many research studies related to NDD.
————————————————————-
3. What is mentioned about scientific research and the effects of NDD?
(A) Research tends to support the concept of NDD.
(B) Research has proven that NDD exists.
(C) No research has been carried out on people with NDD.
(D) Some research results support NDD while others don’t.
————————————————————-
4. What is NOT recommended as a way to reduce the effects of NDD?
(A) Parents should do things outside with their children.
(B) Parents need to force their kids to go outdoors.
(C) Parents should take their sons and daughters camping.
(D) Parents should persuade their kids to play outside.

 

1. lose touch with…  失去與……的接觸∕聯繫
Larry lost touch with Katie after she moved to Canada.
凱蒂搬去加拿大後,賴瑞就和她失去了聯繫。

2. compared to / with…  與……相比
: in comparison to / with…
The second half of the match was dull compared to the first.
和上半場的比賽相比,下半場很無聊。
*dull a. 無聊的

3. back up…  支持……;作為……後援
The evidence you provided doesn’t back up your theory.
你所提供的證據無法支持你的理論。
Those soldiers backed up the firefighters when the fire got out of control.
火勢失控時,那些士兵前來支援消防隊員。

4. tend to V  往往會∕易於……
: be apt to V
Kelly tends to sleep more at night when she goes to bed on time.
凱莉要是晚上準時睡覺,她往往就會睡更久。

5. interact with…  與……互動∕交流
interact vi. 交互作用;相互影響
You should try to interact with the other people at the party instead of hiding in a corner by yourself.
你該設法在派對上與別人互動,而不是自己一個人躲在角落。

6. in turn  因此;接著,轉而
Countries rich in oil have decreased production, which in turn is causing prices to rise.
產油國家已經減產,因而造成油價上升。
*production n. 生產

7. aid in…  幫助……
James went to aid in the rescue efforts after the big earthquake.
大地震之後,詹姆斯前往協助救災工作。

shun vt. 躲開,避開
coin vt. 創造,發明(新字詞)
metaphor n. 隱喻;比喻
note vt. 提到;注意到
hyperactivity n. 過動
: hyperactive a. 過動的
fix n.(維持身體或心理需求的)一劑(藥物)
the immune system  免疫系統
 immune a. 免疫的
irreversible a. 不可逆轉的
symbolic a. 象徵(性)的

1. Nature-Deficit Disorder  大自然缺失症
 deficit n. 短缺,虧損

2. recognized a. 受到認可的
: recognize vt. 認可;認出
E-sports will be included in the recognized events of the 2022 Asian Games.
電子競技將列入 2022 年受亞運會認可的項目中。
Tina had changed so much since high school that I hardly recognized her.
蒂娜中學畢業後變了很多,我幾乎認不出她來。

3. acknowledge vt. 承認
At the press conference, the singer acknowledged that he and his wife had gotten divorced last week.
在記者會上,該歌手承認他上星期已經和太太離婚。

4. aggressive a. 侵略的;挑釁的
Some dogs are friendly, others are shy, and still others are aggressive.
有些狗狗很友善、有些很害羞,還有一些則具攻擊性。

5. claim n. & vt. 宣稱;要求
: lay claim to…  聲稱……為己有
Bill and Tom laid claim to the two desks at the back of the classroom.
比爾和湯姆聲稱教室後面那兩張桌子是他們的。
The man claims that he was not given a fair hearing.
該男子聲稱自己未獲得公平的聆訊。
 *hearing n. 聆訊;公聽會

6. relieve vt. 緩和,減輕
This organization was established to relieve the plight of the homeless.
這間機構的成立是為了紓解遊民的困境。
 *plight n. 困境

7. boost vt. & n. 增強,提升
Paul proposed a novel idea which may help boost sales.
保羅提出一個或許能提升業績的新穎點子。
 *novel a. 新穎的,新奇的
The President-elect gave these businessmen a boost by saying that he would devote himself to raising the economic growth.
總統當選人說他會致力於提升經濟成長,讓這些商人信心大增。

8. reverse vt. 逆轉;徹底改變
After new evidence was presented, the lawyer reversed his client’s plea.
新的證據出爐後,律師改變了委託人的抗辯。
 *plea n. 懇求;訴求

9. practical a. 實用的;實際的
: impractical a. 不實用的;不切實際的
Gina is practical in that she never buys useless items.
吉娜很務實,因為她從不買沒用的物品。
 *in that…  因為……
No one backed Jack’s idea, because it was too impractical.
沒人支持傑克的點子,因為太不實際了。

10. overall a. 整體的 & adv. 整體而言
Winning the tournament gave the tennis player a boost in his overall ranking.
贏得此次錦標賽讓該網球選手的總排名大大提升。
 *tournament n. 錦標賽;比賽
Overall, this competition has been a lot of fun.
整體說來,這項競賽非常有趣。

… whereas they may be worsened by staying inside watching TV, playing video games, or being glued to a smartphone.
注意
 be glued to sth  集中注意力於某物
: glue sth to…  黏某物在……上
 glue vt. 黏;緊附 & n. 膠水
Joe is always glued to the TV after work.
阿喬下班後總是沉迷於看電視。
Jenny glued a picture of her boyfriend to her wall.
珍妮將男友的相片貼在牆上。
This glue should do the trick and hold the two pieces of wood together.
這膠水應該可以把這兩塊木頭黏在一起。
 *do the trick  達到預期效果

失去山林的孩子
大自然缺失症這個術語是用來形容迴避美好大自然所帶來的不良影響。 

  對於並非公認的醫學疾病而言,自從大自然缺失症(NDD)一詞於 2005 年首次被創造以來,它就引起許多關注。作家理查‧洛夫 ── 他認定大自然缺失症主要是針對缺乏接觸自然生活的一個隱喻 ── 在《失去山林的孩子:拯救「大自然缺失症」兒童》一書中提出這個詞彙。洛夫說明,與那些一直看電視和大部分空閒時間都待在室內的孩子相比,常在戶外玩耍的孩子較不容易生病、感到壓力或變得好鬥。事實上,研究似乎證實了該說法,指出長時間待在戶外的孩子們往往有更佳的身心健康。專家相信像是注意力不足過動症等問題可透過與大自然接觸而得到緩解,而待在室內看電視、玩電動遊戲或緊盯著智慧型手機或許會使情況更惡化。此外,研究也指出接觸自然能夠幫助增強免疫系統。
  根據洛夫所言,確保父母鼓勵他們的孩子盡可能在戶外玩耍,大自然缺失症的影響可能就會減輕或甚至逆轉。然而,父母不應該強迫他們的孩子走出戶外或將它當作一種懲罰。相反地,洛夫說他們應該以身作則,與他們在公園、海邊和露營共度時光以及從事其他活動。他還補充說,孩子們在與大自然互動的時候會學習到許多重要又實用的技能,例如冒險、獨立以及做決策。這之後有助於發展自信心和整體健康。

———————————————–

1. 下列哪一項最能描述大自然缺失症?
(A) 需要迅速處理的疾病。
(B) 一種在現今社會相當常見、不可逆轉的疾病。
(C) 一種經研究證實的身體疾病。
(D) 用來描述某種生活方式的象徵術語。
題解:根據本文第一段,作家理查‧洛夫認定大自然缺失症主要是針對缺乏接觸自然生活的一個隱喻,故 (D) 項應為正選。
———————————————–

2. 理查‧洛夫針對大自然缺失症有何建議?
(A) 看電視是幫助擺脫大自然缺失症的一種方式。
(B) 他發明了該術語當作一種玩笑。
(C) 罹患大自然缺失症的孩子比較可能生病。
(D) 他進行了許多有關大自然缺失症的研究。
題解:根據本文第一段,洛夫說明,與那些一直看電視和大部分空閒時間都待在室內的孩子相比,常在戶外玩耍的孩子較不容易生病、感到壓力或變得好鬥,故 (C) 項應為正選。
———————————————–

3. 關於科學研究和大自然缺失症的影響,本文提到哪一點?
(A) 研究往往支持大自然缺失症的概念。
(B) 研究證明大自然缺失症確實存在。
(C) 目前尚無針對大自然缺失症患者進行研究。
(D) 有些研究結果支持大自然缺失症,有些則不然。
題解:根據本文第一段,事實上,研究似乎證實了該說法,指出長時間待在戶外的孩子們往往有更佳的身心健康,故 (A) 項應為正選。
———————————————–

4. 本文並沒有推薦下列哪一項作為減少大自然缺失症影響的方式?
(A) 父母應該與孩子在戶外從事活動。
(B) 父母必須強迫孩子踏出戶外。
(C) 父母應該帶子女去露營。
(D) 父母應該說服孩子去戶外玩耍。
題解:根據本文第二段,父母不應該強迫他們的孩子走出戶外或將它當作一種懲罰,與 (B) 項敘述不符,故為正選。
答案:1. D 2. C 3. A 4. B

 
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